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|LGBT rights in Missouri|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal?||Legal in Western District counties only since 1999
(State of Missouri v. Cogshell)
Legal statewide since 2003
(Lawrence v. Texas)
|For tax purposes only|
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the U.S. state of Missouri face some legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Missouri. Same-sex couples and families headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for all of the protections available to opposite-sex married couples.
- 1 Laws against homosexuality
- 2 Recognition of same-sex relationships
- 3 Adoption and parenting
- 4 Discrimination protection
- 5 Hate crime
- 6 Public opinion
- 7 MAP Equality Map
- 8 Organizations
- 9 References
Laws against homosexuality
Until 2006, Missouri law defined "deviate sexual intercourse" as "any act involving the genitals of one person and the hand, mouth, tongue, or anus of another person or a sexual act involving the penetration, however slight, of the male or female sex organ or the anus by a finger, instrument or object done for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of any person."
Missouri criminalized having "deviate sexual intercourse with another person of the same sex" as "Sexual Misconduct in the First Degree." In 1986, the Supreme Court of Missouri upheld the constitutionality of this prohibition in State v. Walsh. When the U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision in Lawrence v. Texas rendered laws banning consensual sexual activity unenforceable, Missouri was one of only 4 states that criminalized only homosexual sodomy.
Recognition of same-sex relationships
In August 2004, 71% of Missouri voters ratified Amendment 2, which restricted the validity and recognition of marriage in Missouri to the union of one man and one woman. Missouri does not recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions, but on November 14, 2013, Governor Jay Nixon signed an executive order to allow same-sex couples married in other jurisdictions to file joint state income taxes if they file joint federal returns.
Following the death in 2009 of Cpl. Dennis Engelhard of the Missouri State Highway Patrol, his partner of 15 years, Kelly Glossip sued the state for survivor benefits. After the trial court dismissed his suit, Glossip appealed to the Missouri Supreme Court. Amicus briefs filed by several Missouri law professors, the mayor of St. Louis, and several state legislators argued that the state's denial of benefits discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation and should be reviewed using the heightened scrutiny standard. The court heard arguments in the appeal on February 27, 2013. The court ruled 5-2 against Glossip in October 2013, saying his claim was denied on the basis of his marital status, not his sexual orientation.
Domestic partnership registries
A number of jurisdictions within Missouri provide domestic partnership registries which only allow for certain benefits and are only valid and applicable within city or county borders:
- City of Clayton: Residents of the city. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- City of Columbia: No residency requirement. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- Jackson County: Residents of the city. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- City of Kansas City: Residents of the city. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- City of Olivette: No residency requirement. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- City of St. Louis: Residents of the city. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
- University City: Residents of the city. Both opposite- and same-sex couples.
Same-Sex Marriage Lawsuits
The ACLU of Missouri initiated three lawsuits in 2014. Messer v. Nixon, filed on January 8, sought to require Missouri to accept joint income tax filings from same-sex couples who file their federal income taxes jointly. Barrier v. Vasterling, which challenged the state's refusal to recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions, was filed in state circuit court on February 11. Oral arguments on motions for summary judgment are scheduled for September 25, 2014, before Judge James D. Youngs in Kansas City. On June 24, Lawson v. Kelly was filed in the same court on behalf of two same-sex couples who had been denied marriage licenses. After Jackson County officials said they would not participate in defending the state's position and Missouri Attorney General Chris Koster intervened, it was moved to federal district court and assigned to U.S. District Court Judge Ortrie D. Smith.
Adoption and parenting
Missouri has no laws limiting the rights of individuals to adopt children. With respect to couples and second-parent adoption, there are no explicit prohibitions and have been no court cases.
Missouri law does not address discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation. After being proposed for nine years, a bill to add "sexual orientation" to Missouri's non-discrimination statute had its first committee hearing in March 2010. On May 17, 2013, the Senate passed legislation banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in employment, housing, and public accommodations by a 19–11. The House of Representatives adjourned without considering the legislation.
Missouri's hate crimes statutes explicitly address both sexual orientation, defined as "male or female heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality by inclination, practice, identity or expression," and gender identity, defined as "having a self-image or identity not traditionally associated with one's gender."
A September 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found that 32% of Missouri voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 59% were opposed and 9% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 62% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 28% supporting same-sex marriage, 34% supporting civil unions, 37% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure.
|This section has been transcluded from the MAP Equality Maps project. The content is made available on WikiQueer through a partnership with the Movement Advancement Project (MAP). Please visit the project's website for more information and to support MAP's work.|
- PROMO (statewide)
- Good Samaritan Project (Kansas City)
- AIDS Project of the Ozarks (Joplin/Springfield/Rolla)
- Missouri RAIN (Central Missouri/Jefferson City/Columbia)
- Saint Louis Effort for AIDS (St. Louis)
|Some content in this article from Wikipedia's WikiProject LGBT studies|
|The Wikipedia article is LGBT rights in Missouri|
|Special thank you to participants of Wikipedia's WikiProject LGBT studies!|
- Young, Virginia. "Missouri to allow joint tax returns for legally married same-sex couples". Saint Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Mo. Rev. Stat 566.010 (Supp. 2010)". Moga.mo.gov. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- House Bill 1698, Mo. Gen. Assembly (Reg. Sess 2006), accessed April 14, 2011
- Google Scholar: State v. Walsh, 713 S.W.2d 508 (Mo. banc 1986), accessed April 14, 2011
- New York Times: "Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Law Banning Sodomy," June 26, 2003, access April 14, 2011
- Missouri General Assembly: Mo. Rev. Stat 566.090 (Supp. 2010)
- Washington Post: Alan Cooperman, "Gay Marriage Ban in Mo. May Resonate Nationwide," August 5, 2004, accessed April 9, 2011
- "Mo. Const. art. I, sec. 33 (Supp. 2010)". Moga.mo.gov. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Wilson, Reid (November 15, 2013). "Missouri governor allows same-sex couples to file joint tax returns". Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Executive Order 13-14". Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Hartmann, Ray (January 2011). "Think Again: A Hero's Unwelcome". St. Louis Magazine. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Lippmann, Rachel (February 26, 2013). "Partner Of Late Trooper Takes Benefits Fight To Supreme Court". St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- "Case Summary for February 27, 2013". Supreme Court of Missouri. Missouri Courts. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Young, Virginia (February 27, 2013). "Gay partner of fallen trooper seeks benefits in case before Missouri Supreme Court". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Lippmann, Rachel (October 29, 2013). "Same-Sex Partner Of Missouri State Trooper Ruled Ineligible For Survivor Benefits". St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Glossip v. Missouri Department of Transportation and Highway Patrol Employees' Retirement System No. SC92583 (Mo., 2013)
- "City of Clayton Approves Domestic Partnership Registry to Improve Access, Enhance Quality of Life" (Press release). City of Clayton. January 25, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "Affidavit of Joanne R. Mossle". American Civil Liberties Union. March 8, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "Ordinance No. 2457". City of Olivette. July 26, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "Domestic Partnership Registry". City of University City. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Miley, Cynthia (February 14, 2014). "ACLU files lawsuit over Missouri ban on recognizing same-sex marriages". Jurist. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Human Rights Campaign: Missouri Adoption Law, accessed April 14, 2011
- Missouri General Assembly: Missouri Human Rights Act, Mo. Rev. Stat. 213.010, et seq. (Supp. 2010), accessed April 14, 2011
- Messenger, Tony (March 23, 2010). "Gay discrimination measure advances in Mo. House". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Young, Virginia (May 17, 2013). "Senate advances gay rights bill for first time ever". St Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Missouri General Assembly: Missouri Revised Statutes Section 557.035, accessed April 9, 2011
- http://www.publicpolicypolling.com/pdf/2011/PPP_Release_MO_09161118.pdf. Retrieved 2013-11-02. Missing or empty